Middle-english Glossary
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abid, abyd, abyde verb, prsnt. remain, await, wait; abood verb, pst. awaited, remained

abideth, abydeth verb awaits

abidyng verb awaiting

able adj. suitable

abluciouns noun cleansings

abood noun delay

above adj. superior

abregge verb abridge, shorten

accidie noun sloth, laziness

accord, acord noun agreement

achatours noun buyers

acorded verb agreed

adoun prep. below

adrad adj. afraid

afered, aferd adj. afraid

affiance noun trust

affraye verb, prsnt frighten

affrayed verb, pst. frightened, afraid

after-mete prep. the time after diner

agast verb, pst. prtcpl. frightened

agaste verb, pst. sg. frightened

agu noun acute fever

aiel noun grandfather

aketoun noun wadded jacket worn under the chain-mail coat

al conj. although

alauntz noun wolfhounds

al bifore adv. first, before everyone else, heading the procession

alday adv. daily

alderbest best of all

alderfirst first of all, to begin with

alderlevest most beloved

aldermost most of all

aleyes noun garden paths

algate, algates adv. always, all the same

alkamystre noun alchemist

Alkaron noun the Koran

alle and some one and all, everyone

allegge verb adduce, cite

allye noun kinsman

allyen verb ally oneself, marry

almesdede noun almsgiving

almesse noun charity

al speke he although he may speak

alyght verb arrived

als cleere adv. as clearly

amalgamyng noun blending, amalgamation

amende verb improve, correct, remedy

amended verb, pst. prtcpl. improved, corrected

amblere noun pacing horse

amonesteth verb, prsnt. sg. admonishes

Amor vincit omnia (Latin) Love conquers all

angwissous adj. anxious

anlaas noun broad two-edged dagger

annueleer noun chantry priest, a priest who sings anniversary masses for the dead

anon, anoon adv. straightway, at once, immediately

anoy noun trouble

antiphoner noun anthem-book, book of antiphonal hymns

apayed verb, pst. pleased

ape noun 1. fool, dupe; 2. monkey

apertenen verb befit

aperteneth verb, prsnt. sg. befits

apiked verb adorned, trimmed

appalled adj. pale-looking, faded

apposed verb questioned

appreved verb approved, proven, tested

approwours noun agents

areste verb stop, restrain

a-rewe adv. in succession

argumentz noun logical reasoning

aright adv. certainly

armee noun military expedition

armure noun armour, protective covering

array noun 1. equipment; 2. dress, clothes

arrayed verb, pst. prtcpl. prepared, adorned

arreest noun restaint, seizure

artelries noun artillery, shooting equipment, cannons and catapults

arwes noun, pl. arrows

aslaked calmed

asonder adv. apart

assaut noun assault

assay noun 1. trial; 2. test

assaye verb, prsnt. sg. test

assayed verb, pst. sg tested

assege noun siege

asseged verb besieged

assent noun consent, will, opinion

assente verb, prsnt. consent, agree; assented verb, pst. consented, agreed

assise noun the court of assizes

assoille verb absolve

assoillyng noun absolution

assured adj. confident; verb entrusted

astert verb escaped

asterte, asterted verb escaped

astoned verb amazed, astonished, surprised

astored verb provided

aswowne adv. in a swoon, aswooned

atemprely, attemprely adv. moderately

at erst prep. for the first time

atones adv. 1. at once, immediately; 2. at one time, at the same time

attamed verb, pst. begun

attempree adj. moderate

atthamaunt, adamant noun adamant, a very hard kind of stone

atwo adv. in two

atwynne adv. apart

auctorite, auctoritee noun 1. written authority, an authoritative statement or passage; 2. legal power or authority

aungel noun angel

aungellyk adj. angel-like

auter noun altar

avalen verb take off

avarice noun greed

avaunce verb prosper

avauntyng verbal noun boasting

avayle verb help, benefit

Ave Marie (Latin) Hail Mary (first words of a Latin prayer)

avoutrye, avowtrie, avowtrye noun adultery

avowtier noun adulterer

avow noun vow, solemn pledge

avys noun 1. discussion; 2. opinion

avyseth verb, 3rd prs. sg. look at, consider

avysement noun deliberation

awreke verb avenged

axe verb, prsnt. sg. ask

axed verb, pst. asked

axeth verb, prsnt. sg. asks

ay adv. always

ba verb kiss

baar verb carried

bacheler, bachiler noun young man, unmarried man, young knight

bachilrie noun knighthood, knightly conduct

Bacus noun Bacchus, god of wine

baillif, bailly noun bailiff, an agent for a lord's estate who administered justice and collected revenues

balke noun beam

balled adj. bald

bane noun killer

Barbre nacioun noun pagan world

bargaynes noun bargains, buying and selling

barge noun sailing ship

baronage noun nobles, nobility

bataille noun battle

bath noun cauldron

bathen verb bask

bauderye, bawderye noun pandering

bawdes noun pimps

bawdryk noun baldric, shoulder strap, a belt for a sword, bugle, etc. hung from the shoulder across the body to the opposite hip

bawme noun balsam

beautee noun beauty

beddes heed noun head of the bed

bede noun bead, a small usually rounded and perforated piece of glass or stone for threading with others to make jewellery

bedrede adj. 1. bedridden, confined to bed by infirmity; 2. decrepit

beggestere noun beggar-woman

bekke nod

benefice noun ecclesiastical living

benigne, benygne, benyngne adj. 1. kind, good; 2. gracious

benignely, benygnely adv. graciously

benignytee, benygnytee, benyngnytee, noun goodness

benyson, benysoun noun blessing

bereth verb acquits

berkyng verbal noun barking

berne noun barn

best noun beast

bible noun book

bibledde adj. covered with blood

biddeth verb, prsnt. pray

bifel, bifil verb (it) happened

bigileres noun liars, deceivers

biheeste, biheete, biheste noun promise

bihight, bihighte verb promised

bihighten verb promised

biknowe verb reveal, confess

bileve verb remain, stay

bille noun petition, formal charge

biraft verb taken away (from)

birafte verb took away (from)

bireve verb remove, deprive, take away

bireveth verb removes, deprives, takes away from

biseche, biseke verb beseech

bisemare noun scorn

bisette verb, pst. applied, used

bitook verb entrusted

bitrayseth verb, 3rd prs. prsnt. betrays

bitwix, bitwixe, bitwixen, bitwyxen prep. between

biwrey, biwreye verb, prsnt. 1. reveal, expose; 2. betray

biwreyed verb, pst. revealed

blak, blake adj. black

blent verb deceived, blinded

blew adj. blue

bleynte verb turned pale

blisful adj. blessed

blyve adv. quickly

bobance noun boast

bocher noun butcher

bodies, bodyes noun metals

boef noun beef

boghte verb redeemed

bokeler, bokeleer noun buckler, small shield

bond noun bond, knowledge of practitioner

boone noun request, prayer

boote noun remedy

bootelees adv. without remedy, cureless

bord noun dinner table

bord bigonne sat in the place of honor

bountee noun goodness, virtue

bountevous adj. generous

bour noun, sg. inner room, bedroom, private room for lord and lady

bourde noun jest

boures noun, pl. bedrooms

boidekyn noun sg. dagger

boydekyns noun, pl. daggers

brawen, brawn noun, sg. 1. muscle; 2. meat

brawnes noun, pl. muscles

breme adv. fiercely

brenne, brennen verb burn

brenneth verb, 3rd prs. sg. burns

brent verb burned

brennynge verb burning

bresten verb break, burst

bretful, bret-ful adj. brimful

bretherhed noun guild, fraternity

briberyes noun ways of stealing money

bridale noun wedding-party

brid noun, sg. bird

briddes noun, pl. birds

brigge noun bridge

brike noun trap, plight

Britouns noun Bretons

brode adv. plainly

brood adj. broad, wide

brond noun torch

brosten verb broken

brotel adj. insecure, unstable, brittle

brotelnesse, brotilnesse noun insecurity, unstability, fickleness

browdynge noun embroidery

brybe verb steal

brydel noun bridle, the harness fitted about a horse's head

brymstoon noun sulphur

bryngen verb bring

brynne verb burn

bulles noun papal bulls, edict, indulgences

burel adj. uneducated, unlearned

burghes noun, pl. boroughs, a town (as distinct from a city) with a corporation and priviliges granted by a royal charter

burdoun noun bass (part in a song)

burgeys noun citizen of a city (tradesman)

buryeles noun burial places (the catacombs)

but conj. unless

butiller noun butler, steward

buxom adj. obedient

buxomly adv. obediently

by aventure by chance

byg adj. strong

byle noun beak

by oon assent unanimously, all together

by noon assent not at all

by rote by heart

by taille on credit

byte verb burn

byynge verb purchase (buying)

caas noun case, circumstances

cake noun loaf of bread

calcenyng noun calcination, reducing to powder by heat

calculinge noun astrological computation

Cantebrigge Cambridge

caples noun, pl. horses

capul noun nag, a small riding-horse or pony

careyne noun corpse

carl noun fellow

carryk noun barge, large sailing ship

cartere noun charioteer

caste verb, pst. sg. thought, planned

catel noun property, possessions

caytyf, kaityf, kaytyf noun wretch

caytyves noun wretched creatures

ceint, ceynt noun belt

celle noun a subordinate monastery

certes adv. certainly, indeed

chaar noun chariot, a stately or triumphal vehicle

chaast adj. chaste

chaffare noun merchandise, goods

chalons noun, pl. blankets

chamberere noun (chamber)maid

chambre noun, sg. (bed)room

chambres noun, pl. bedrooms

chanon, chanoun noun canon, a member of the clergy serving in a cathedral or collegiate church

chaped verb mounted

chapeleyne noun a nun serving as a secretary to a prioress

chapman noun merchant

chasteyn noun chestnut tree

chastitee noun chastity, abstinence from sexual intercourse

chaunterie noun appointment as a chantry priest, an endowment for a priest to serve in a chapel for the soul of its patron

chaunteth verb, prsnt. sg. sings

cheere, chere noun 1. manners, behaviour; 2. facial expression, look

chees verb choose, chose

chekker noun chess board

ches, chese verb choose

ches noun chess

cheste noun coffin

chevyssaunce noun financial arrangements

chidyng verbal noun scolding

chiknes noun, pl. chickens

childhede noun childhood

chirche noun church

chirche dore noun door of the church

chivalrie, chivalrye noun 1. nobility; 2. knights

ciser noun strong alcoholic drink

clad verb, pst. prtcpl. clothed

cladde verb, pst. sg. clothed

clepe verb call; clepeth 3rd prs. prsnt. sg. calls; cleped (ycleped) pst. called

clergeon noun choir-boy, schoolboy

clerk noun 1. university student; 2. scholar

clene adv. neatly

clennesse noun purity, chastity

clippeth verb embraces

cloutes noun rags

clowde noun cloud

cloystre noun monastery

clyket noun key

cok noun rooster

cokenay noun weakling, coward

cokewold noun cuckold, husband of an adulteress

cokkow noun cuckoo, a kind of bird

col-fox noun fox with black-tipped tail, feet and ears

collacioun noun colloquy, discussion, conference

colt noun a young uncastrated male horse usually less than four years old

commune verb communicate, have conversation with

commune profit noun common interest

communes noun common soldiers

complayne verb lament

complexioun noun temperament, balance of the body's fluids

concupiscence noun sexual desire, lust

conscience noun moral sense and solicitude

conseil noun 1. opinion, decision, advice; 2. council, adviser

conseil kepe verb keep secret

conseille verb tell, instruct, teach, advise

consistorie noun court

constellacion noun configuration of the celestial bodies

contek noun strife

continuance noun perseverance

countour (contour) noun auditor

contree noun district, country

contricioun noun the state of being contrite, affected by guilt, feeling remorse or penitence

convertible adj. interchangeable

conveyen verb introduce

coom verb came

cop noun top

coppe noun cup

corage noun, sg. 1. heart, feeling; 2. (sexual) desire, ardor

corages noun, pl. spirits, feelings

cordial medicine of the heart

corn noun grain, any cereal before or after harvesting

corone noun, sg. crown

corones noun, pl. crowns

corrumpable adj. corruptible

cors noun corpse

costlewe adj. very expensive

cosynage noun kinship

cote noun 1. dungeon, cell; 2. cottage, small farm

couched verb placed, arranged

countrefete verb imitate

countrefeted verb imitated

courtepy noun short coat, jacket

coveitise, coveityse noun avarice, greed, covetousness

covenable adj. appropriate

covenant noun agreement, contract

covent noun convent, a religious community, a group of friars or monks

coverchief noun, sg. head-dress

coverchiefs noun, pl. head-dresses

covyne noun treachery

cow noun chough, a crow-like bird

coy adj. quiet, shy

craft noun profession, occupation, trade

cracchynge scratching

creaunce verb obtain credit, borrow money

creaunceth verb obtains credit

crekes noun tricks

crispe adv. curly

cristal stones noun glass cases

croce noun cross

crommes noun crumbs

croppes noun shoots, new leaves

crosselet noun crucible, a vessel made of a refractory substance used for melting materials at high temperatures

croys noun cross

crude adj. raw, unrefined

crueltee noun cruelty

culpe noun guilt

curaat, curat noun parish priest

cure noun charge, jurisdiction

curious adj. skillful, skillfully made

curiously adv. skillfully

cursyng noun archdeacon's curse, excommunication

curteisie noun gracious and considerate conduct, refinement of manners

daliance, daliaunce noun 1. flirtation; 2. sociability, gossip

dame noun mother

dampned verb condemned

dangerous, daungerous adj.domineering, arrogant, fastidious, hard to please, grudging

dartes noun, pl. spears

daswen verb are dazed

dayesye noun daisy, a small plant bearing flowers each with a yellow disc and white rays, usually found in meadows

day of doom noun Judgement Day, the day on which the Last Judgement is believed to take place

debonaire adj. modest, gracious

debonairetee noun graciousness, meekness

debonairely, debonairly adv. gently, modestly, graciously

decree noun text of ecclesiastical law

dede, deed adj. dead

deedly adv. deadly

deef adj. deaf

deerne adj.secret, sercretive

deeth noun death

defaute noun 1. flaw; 2. lack, absence; 3. wickedness

defended verb forbad

deffended verb forbad, forbidden

deffenden verb forbid

deffendeth verb forbids

defye verb repudiate

delit, delyt noun, sg. delight, pleasure, desire

delices noun, pl. pleasures

deliciously adv. luxuriously, voluptuously

delivernesse noun dexterity

delve verb dig

delyvere adj. agile, active, nimble

delyverly adv. nimbly

demande noun, sg. question

demandes noun, pl. questions

demeth noun judge

Depardieux by God

depe adv. deeply

depeint verb, pst. prtcpl. stained

depeynted verb, pst. prtcpl. painted

depper comp. more deeply

derk, derke adj. dark

derknesse noun darkness

descensories noun, pl. retorts, flasks used for distillation

despit, despyt noun scorn, disdain, insult, contempt

despitous adj. scornful

desport, disport noun amusement, pleasure

desray noun disorder

destreyneth verb afflicts, distresses, compels

dette noun debt, obligation

dettelees without debts

dettour noun

Deus hic God is here

deve adj. deaf

devoir noun duty

devyne verb guess, conjecture

devyse verb 1. tell, narrate; 2. look upon, inspect; 3. instruct, command

deynous adj. haughty, arrogant

deyntee noun, sg. delicacy; adj. fine, valuable, excellent

deyntees noun, pl. fine food and drinks, delicacies

deyntevous adj. delicicious

deys noun dais (stage, raised platform)

dide execucioun carried out the law

diffamacioun noun slander

diffame bad reputation

diffye verb repudiate, despise

dight verb, pst. 1. prepared; 2. had sexual intercourse with

digne adj. worthy

digne of reverence adj. worthy of respect

dilatacioun noun elaboration, increase of words

diligence noun effort, diligence

disclaundre noun slander, defame

discord noun disagreement

discryve verb desribe

disfigure noun deformity, disfigurement

disese noun discomfort, distress

dispence noun expenditure(s)

dispitous adj. angry

dispitously adv. angrily

dispoillen verb undress

disporte verb amuse oneself

disposed verb determined, decided

dissevere verb separate, be separated

dissymuleth verb dissembles

divynynge noun speculation

dokked verb cut short

dolven verb buried

doomes noun, pl. judgements, decisions

doost verb, 2nd prs. sg. prsnt. do

dooth verb, 3rd prs. sg. prsnt. do, does

dores noun, pl. doors

dorste verb, pst. dared

dortour noun dormitory

dotage noun feeble-minded senility

doutances noun uncertainties

dowaire noun dowry, property or money brought by a bride to her husband

drad verb feared, respected

drasty adj. worthless, lousy

drawen to memorie verb be remembered

draweth cut draw lots (straws)

drede noun fear; drede, dreden verb be afraid

dredelees adj. 1. fearless; 2. doubtless

dredeth verb, 3rd prs. sg. is afraid, fears

dreem noun, sg. dream

dremes noun, pl. dreams

drenche verb drown

drenchyng verb drowning

dresse verb go, move

dressed verb treated

dreynt, dreynte verb drowned

droghte noun dryness

dronkelewe adj. habitually drunk, addicted to drink alcohol

droppynge verb leaking

dryve verb rushed

duc noun duke

dure verb last, endure

duren verb last, continue

duszeyne noun dozen, twelve

dwale noun sleeping potion, drug

dyamauntz noun diamonds

dyched surrounded by a ditch

dyke noun ditch

dyvynytee noun theology

ech pro. each (one)

eek, eke adv. also

eelde, elde noun old age

eem, em noun uncle

eere, ere noun, sg. ear

eeris, eres, erys noun, pl. ears

eet verb ate

eft adv. 1. again; 2. immediately

eftsoone, eft soone, eft-soone, eftsoones, eft-soones adv. 1. again, once more; 2. immediately, very soon, right now

eggyng verb incitement, urging

egle noun eagle, a large bird of prey

egre adj. fierce

eir noun air

elf-queene noun fairy queen

elvysshe adj. mysterious

embassadrye noun negotiation

embrouded adj. embroidered

empeyre verb damage, injure

emprented verb imprinted, made an impression of

emprentyng noun imprint, impression

emprise noun enterprise, chivalric exploit

encombred verb, pst. prtcpl. 1. stuck; 2. burdened, encumbered (by)

encressen verb increased

endite, enditen, endyte verb write, describe in writing

enditynges verb writings

engendrure noun procreation, offspring

enoynt adj. anointed, rubbed with oil

ensample noun 1. example, model; 2. illustrative story

entencioun noun intention

entende verb endeavour, strive

entente noun 1. intention, will; 2. plan

ententif adj. attentive, diligent, eager

entremetteth verb, 3rd prs. sg. interferes, meddles

entuned adj. intoned

envenymynge noun poison

envyned adj. stocked with wine

er adv. before, formerly; conj. before; prep. before

ercedeken noun archdeacon

ercedekenes curs noun excommunication, the official exclusion of a person from participation in the sacraments or formal communion with the Church

ere noun plough

erl noun earl

ernest noun seriousness

ers noun arse

erst adj. superlative before, earlier, previously

erthe noun earth

eschawfed verb, pst. prtcpl. heated

eschawfyne verbal noun heating

eschewing noun avoidance

eschewe, eschue, eschuwe verb escape, avoid

eschueth verb, 3rd prs. sg. escapes, avoids

ese noun pleasure, refreshment

esement noun redress, compensation

esily adv. comfortably, easily, gently

espiaille noun (network of) spies

estaat, estat noun 1. state, condition; 2. rank, social standing

estatlich adj. dignified

estatly adj. dignified

estres noun & adj. interior

ete verb eat

eterne adj. eternal

evene adj.1. equal; 2. impartial

evene lengthe medium height

ever lenger the wers increasingly worse

everich, everych adj. every (one), each (one)

everichon, everichoon, everychon pro. everyone

everideel, everydeel, every deel adv. completely, in all respects, in every detail; noun everything

expounde, expounden verb interpret, explain

expowne verb explain, expound

expres adv. clearly, explicit

ey noun egg

eyen narwe swollen eyelids

eyr noun air

fable noun fiction, falsehood

fadme noun fathom

fair adj. pleasing, handsome, fine, morally good

fairnesse noun graciousness, kindness

faldyng noun coarse woolen coat

famyne noun famine, shortage of food

fare noun commotion

fareth verb behaves

farsed adj. stuffed

faucon noun falcon, a kind of bird of prey

fay, fey noun faith

Fairye, Fayerye noun fairyland

fayerye adj. something bewitching, delightful

fayn adj. glad, happy, pleased; adv. gladly, happily

feend noun demon, devil

feendly adj. devilish

feere noun companion

fee symple noun unrestricted possession, absolute possession

feffed verb enfeoffed, endowed with

fel noun skin

fellen verb happened

Femenye noun Amazons

ferne halwes noun distant shrines

ferre adj. farther

ferreste adv. superlative farthest, those farthest away

fers noun queen, a chessman

ferthe adj. fourth

ferthyng noun 1. speck, spot; 2. farthing (a coin worth one-fourth of a penny), something of little value

feste noun feast, festivity

fetisly adv. elegantly

fettres noun fetters, iron foot chains

feyned verb faked

figure noun methaphor (figure of speech)

figures ten Arabic numerals

fil in office verb was employed, got employment

fir, fyr noun fire

fithele noun fiddle

Flaundryssh adj. Flemish

flee verb 1. fly; 2. run away, escape

fleemeth verb, 3rd prs. sg. drives out

fleeth verb, 3rd prs. sg. flies

flemed wrecche noun banished exile

flesshhook noun meat-hook

flete verb float

fletynge verb, prs. prtcpl. floating

flo noun arrow

flokmeele adj. in groups

Flora the goddess of flowers

flour-de-lys noun lily

floytynge verb, prs. prtcpl. whistling

fnorteth verb, 3rd prs. sg. snorts

fodder noun dried hay or straw for cattle or horses

folily adj. foolishly

fonge verb receive

fonne noun fool

foore noun footsteps

fordoon verb 1. destroy, ruin; 2. violate

forneys noun cauldron

fornicacioun noun fornication, sexual intercourse between persons not married to each other

forpyned goost noun tormented spririt

for sith conj. because

forster noun forester, game-keeper

forthren verb help

fortunen the ascendent calculate the planetary position

forward, foreward noun agreement, promise

forwityng noun forknowledge

foryeve verb forgive

foryeveth verb, 3rd prs. sg. forgives

foryifnesse noun foregiveness

fostred verb brought up, nourished, educated

fostryng noun nourishment

foul adj. 1. ugly, dirty; 2. vicious, evil

foul affray noun terrible assault

fowel noun, sg. noun bird

foweles noun, pl. birds

foynen verb thrust

foyson adv. plenty

frankeleyn noun landowner of the gentry class

fraternitee noun religious guild, fraternity

fredom noun liberality, generosity of spirit

freend noun friend

freendes noun, pl. 1. friends; 2. husbands

freeten verb devoured

freletee noun weakness

fremde adj. foreign

frenesye noun frenzy, madness

frenges noun ornamental fringes

frere noun friar, a member of any certain religious orders of men

freten verb devour

frutesteres noun girls who sell fruit

fruyt noun essence, essential part

ful adv. 1. very; 2. fully, completely

ful faste very close, very fast

ful fayn very gladly

ful fetys very elegant

ful fetisly very elegantly

ful litel very little

ful oft, ofte very often

ful perilous very dangerous

ful semely, semyly in a very seemly manner

ful swithe very quickly

ful wel very well

fundement noun, sg. 1. foundation; 2. anus

fynde verb provide

fyr, fyre, fir noun fire

fyr-reed adj. fire-red

fyve wittes five senses

galle noun bitterness

gale adj. complain loudly

galpyng verbal noun yawning

galyngale noun sweet spice prepared from the root of sweet cyperus

gan verb, pst. began

ganeth verb, 3rd prs. sg. yawns

gan hye verb hastened, hurried

gappe noun gap

gargat noun throat

garleek noun garlic

gastly adj. horrible, terrifying

gat-tothed adj. gap-toothed

gaude noun trick

gauren verb stare

gay adj. bright

gayler noun jailer, warder

geere noun equipment, outfit

geldyng noun eunuch

gentil adj. 1. noble (in character); 2. refined, excellent

gentillesse noun nobility, excellence

gerdon, gerdoun noun & verb reward, requital

gerl noun girl

gerner noun granary

gesse verb suppose, estimate

gestes noun lodgers, guests

girdel, girdle noun belt

girles noun young women, young people

girt adj. encircled

giterne, gyterne noun stringed instrument

gleedes noun embers

glose noun, sg. 1. flatter; 2. gloss, interpretation; verb flatter

glymsyng noun glimpse

gnat noun gnat, mosquito, flying stinging insect

gnof noun churl, peasant

gnow verb gnawed

gobet noun piece

goodly adv. gladly

Goost noun Holy Spirit

goot noun goat

gooth verb, 3rd prs. sg. goes; imperative go

gossib noun (close) friend

governance, governaunce noun 1. behaviour; 2. control, management

gras noun grace

graunges noun outlying farms, granges

graunt noun decree

graunt mercy interj. thank you

grece noun grease

greet desport excellent deportment

greet estaat excellent condition

Grete See noun Mediterranean

gretter comparative larger

greveth grieve

greyn noun seed

grifphon noun griffin, a mythical creature with a lion's body and an eagle's head and wings

grisly adj. terrible

grope verb examine

grounded verb instructed

grucche, grucchen verb complain

gruccheth verb, 3rd prs. sg. complains

grucchyng, gruchchyng verbal noun complaining

gyde noun & verb guide

gye verb 1. lead, guide, govern; 2. preserve, protect

gylour noun deceiver

gyn noun contrivance

gynglen verb jingle

gypon, gypoun noun tunic, surcoat worn over the armor

gyse noun manner, custom

haberdasshere noun a dealer in hats or small wares

haliday, halyday noun religious festival, holy day

halkes, noun hiding places

hals noun neck

halse verb beseech

halwed verb hallowed, consecrated

halwes noun, pl. apostles, saints

ham noun home

han verb have

hardily adv. certainly

hardy adj. bold, strong

hardynesse noun boldness, bravery

harlot noun rascal, buffoon, jester; servant

harlotrie, harlotrye noun ribaldry, harlotry, wickedness

harlotries noun scurrility, deeds of harlotry, obscenities

harm noun pity, suffering, misfortune

harneised verb ornamented

harneys noun armor, fighting equipment

hasardour noun gambler

hasardrie, hasardrye noun gambling

hastifliche adv. quickly, hastily

hastifnesse noun rashness

haubergeoun noun coat of chain-mail

haunt noun skill

haunteden verb practised

hauteyn adj. loud, impressive

hawe noun yard

hawebake noun a poor meal (literally baked hawthorn berries)

heddes noun, pl. heads

heed, heede noun, sg. head

heele, hele noun (good) health, well-being

heer, heeres, heeris, heris, herys noun hair

heeste noun, sg. 1. command; 2. promise, vow

heestes noun, pl. 1. commands; 2. promises, vows

heete noun heat

heeth noun heath, an area of open uncultivated land with coarse grasses

hem pro. them

hen noun chicken

hende adj. courteous, pleasant

hente verb caught

herberwe noun inn, lodging; figuratively astrological house

herkne verb, prsnt. hear, listen to; herde verb. pst. heard

herkneth verb, 3rd prs. sg. hears, listens to

herknynge verb, verbal noun listening

hernes noun hiding places

heronsewes noun young herons (heron, a wading bird with a long neck, long legs, and a long, pointed bill)

hert noun stag, adult male deer

herte noun heart

hertelees noun coward

hertely adv. really, sincerely

hethenesse noun heathendom, the non-Christian world

hethyng noun contempt, mockery

hevedes noun heads

hevene noun heaven

heve of harre verb lift off its hinges

hevynesse noun 1. drowsiness; 2. sadness

hewe noun hue, appearance

hierde noun shepherd

hight, highte verb was called, was named

hire noun wages, payment

his wit bisette used his wits

hochepot noun mixture

hoker noun disdain

holwe verb emaciated

homycide noun murderer

honeste cure noun sense of decency, care for decency, self-respect

honestee noun good manners, chastity, purity

hool adj. healthy

hooly verb blessed

hooly writ noun the Bible

hoom noun home prep. homeward

hoor, hoore adj. white-haired, grey

hoote adv. passionately; adj. passionate, hot

hope verb expect

hopur noun hopper, through which the grain passes into the mill

hosen, hoses noun stockings

hostelrie, hostelrye noun inn, lodging

hostileer, hostiler noun innkeeper

houndes noun pl. dogs

housbondes noun husbands

housbondrye noun (domestic) economy

hunte noun hunter

hyer hond noun upper hand

hym liste he preferred to, he chose to

hym was levere he would rather

hynde noun female deer

hyndreste adj. superlative last

hyne noun farm worker, servant, hind

icched verb itched

ilhayl bad luck

ik pro. I

ilke adj. same

impertinent adj. irrelevant

in a clause briefly, in a few words

I nam but I am as good as ...

in chyvachie on a cavalry expedition

in comune adj. generally, in general

incubus noun evil spirit that copulates with women in their sleep

Inde India

induracioun noun hardening

infect adj. invalidated

infecte verb affect negatively, pollute

in maladye adj. ill

inpossible noun impossibility

instaunce noun request

ire noun anger, irritability, the deadly sin of wrath

janglere noun chatterer, loud talker, teller of dirty stories

jangleresse noun chatterbox, female gossip

janglerie verbal noun chatter

jangles noun gossip

japed verb, pst. tricked

jape noun, sg. trick, joke

japes noun, pl. tricks, jokes

je vous dy (French) I tell you

Jewerye, Juerie noun Jewish quarter, ghetto

jogelour noun conjurer

joust noun one to one combat

jubilee noun fiftieth anniversary

juge noun judge

justise, justice noun judge

kan verb, 3rd prs. sg. knows

kankedort noun bad situation

kaynard noun dotard, a person who is feeble-minded

keen noun cows

kembd (ykembd) verb, pst. prtcpl. combed

kembeth verb, 3rd prs. sg. combs

kempe adj. shaggy, unkempt

kepe verb keep, take care after, preserve

kervere of ymages noun sculptor

kervyng noun sculpture

keste, kist, kiste verb kissed

kiked verb gazed

kithe verb reveal, show

kithed verb, pst. prtcpl. shown

kitte verb cut

knarry adj. gnarled

knave noun, sg. (male) servant

knaves noun, pl. (male) servants

knedyng-trogh noun kneading-trough, large trough for kneading dough

knobbes noun swellings

knotte noun (main) point

knowe verb recognize

knoweleche, knoweliche noun acquaintance

knowes noun knees

knyght noun knight

konnyng, konnynge noun skill, understanding

koude verb knew how to

kowthe verb known

kultour noun coulter, a vertical cutting blade fixed in front of a ploughshare

kymelyn noun tub used to brew beer

kynde noun nature

kynrede noun kindred, family

kyte noun kite, a predatory bird with a long, often forked tail

laas noun cord

Lameth noun Lamech, the first bigamist according to the Bible

large adv. 1. freely, generously; 2. free-spending, extravagant

latoun noun a brass-like alloy

laude noun praise

launde noun clearing

laus adj. loose

lazar noun leper

leche noun physician, healer

lecherye noun lechery

lede verb bring

leden noun language

leef verb leave, depart

leek noun a vegetable with flat overlapping leaves forming an elongated cylindrical bulb

leere verb learn

leet verb 1. allowed; 2. left

leeve, leve adj. & noun dear

leeve dame noun dear lady

leevestow do you believe

lemes noun, pl. 1. limbs; 2. flames

lemman noun sweetheart, lover, loved one

lekes verb leeks

leon, leoun noun lion

lere verb learn

lese verb loose

leseth verb loose, loses

lest noun desire

leste verb, pst. sg. pleased

lesynge noun loss

lesynges noun, pl. lies

letterure noun book-learning

lette noun delay

lette, letten verb hinder

lettest verb hinder, spoil

letteth verb, 3rd prs. sg. hinders

Lettow Lithuania

letuarie noun medicine

letuaries noun medical mixtures, electuaries

leve noun permission

leve verb grant, allow

leveful adj. lawful, permissible

levere comp. rather

lewed adj. uneducated

lewed man noun uneducated man, layman

lewednesse noun ignorance

leyser noun leisure

licenciat licensed to hear confessions

lief adj. & noun beloved

lif, lyf noun life

ligeance noun allegiance, obedience or loyalty owed to a nation, sovereign or cause

liggen verb lie

liggynge verb lying

lightly adv. easily

lightnesse noun agility

likerous adj. wanton, flirtatious, gluttonous

likerousnesse noun wantonness

list, liste verb, prsnt. sg. please, pleases

litarge, lytarge noun lead monoxide

lixt verb, 2nd prs. sg. lie

lodemenage noun skill in navigation

lokynge verb looking

lomb noun lamb

lond noun country, land

longes noun lungs

long yherd adj. long-haired

loode-sterre noun North star, polar star; figuratively guiding star

loone noun 1. loan; 2. grace

looth adj. 1. displeasing; 2. reluctant, unwilling

loothly adv. loathsome, hideous

lordynges noun, pl. sirs, gentlemen, my lords

lorn verb lost

losengeour noun flatterer

lotynge adj. in hiding

lough verb laughed

lowely adj. modest, humble

luce noun pike

Luna noun the moon

lusty adj. lively, pleasing, lusty

lustynesse noun delight, pleasure

luxurie noun lechery

lymaille noun metal filings

lymytacioun noun territory, district

lymytour noun friar licensed (by his order) to beg in a specific district

lyne noun family, lineage

lyst noun ear

magyk natureel noun natural science

Mahoun Mohammed

maister strete noun main street

maistresse noun, sg. governess

maistresses noun, pl. governesses

makelees adj. matchless

maken stryf verb cause trouble, quarrel

Makomete Mohammed

maladye noun illness

male noun pouch, bag

malisoun noun curse

manace verb menace, threaten

mandement noun summons

mansioun noun dwelling place, domicile

manye noun mania

marchant noun merchant

marchal noun master of ceremonies

mare noun 1. the female of any equine animal, especially the horse; 2. (figuratively) homosexual

markys noun marquis

marybones noun marrow bones

maugree prep. despite

maugree his/hir heed against his/her will, despite his/her struggles

maunciple noun business agent, purchaser of provisions for an inn of court (temple)

may verb can

mayde, mayden noun 1. virgin; 2. girl

maydenhed, maydenhede, maydenhod noun virginity

may nat avaunce cannot be profitable

mede, meede noun meadow, a piece of grassland

meeltyd noun mealtime, lunch time

medlee adj. motley, parti-colored

medleth verb, 3rd prs.sg. meddles

mele noun ground meal

melle noun mill

meene noun instrument

membres noun, pl. sexual organs, private parts

mendynantz noun mendicants

menestow do you mean

merk noun image

merrshy adj. marshy

meschance, meschaunce noun misfortune

mescheef, meschief noun mischief, misfortune, adversity, trouble

mesuage noun messuage, a dwelling house with outbuildings and land assigned to its use

mesurable adj. moderate, temperate

mesurably adv. moderately

mete noun food, dinner

mete verb dream

mette verb, pst. dreamed

meynee noun retinue, household

millere noun miller

Minerva Roman goddess of wisdom

misericorde noun charity, mercy

mishap noun misfortune

mitten noun mitten

moeble, moebles noun personal property

mollificacioun noun softening

montance noun amount, size

mooder noun mother

moore part noun majority, greater part

moost adv. most

moot verb must

mordre noun murder

mordrynge verbal noun murdering

mormal noun ulcer, sore

mottelee noun parti-colored cloth

mowes noun grimaces

Moyses Moses

much and lite noun great and small, everyone

muchel adj. much

mullok noun rubbish, garbage

multiplicacioun noun transmutation

multiplie verb transmute (technical term for changing base metals into gold and silver)

murmur verbal noun grumbling

murye note noun pleasant voice

muwe noun mew, bird cage, usually for hawks

myddel verb waist

myght noun power

mynstralcie noun musical instrument

myre noun 1. mire, a stretch of swampy or boggy ground; 2. mud, durt; in the mire in difficulties

mysbileeve noun skepticism, suspicion

myscarie verb go wrong

mysgovernaunce noun misconduct, misbehaviour

myshappy adj. miserable

mystriste noun mistrust

nakers noun kettle-drums

namo adj. no more, no others; adv. no more, never again

narwe adv. closely; adj. narrow, small

nathelees, natheles, natheless adv. nevertheless, none the less

nat worth an oystre worth nothing; in Chaucer's time, oysters were poor-people's food

natyf adj. natural

nave noun hub, the central part of a wheel, rotating on or with the axle, and from which the spokes radiate

nece noun niece, kinswoman

nede noun necessity, need

nedelees adv. needless, without purpose

nede, neede adv. necessary, necessarily

neet noun cattle

nempne verb name, tell

nether ye noun lower eye

never a deel adv. not a bit

newefangel adj. fond of novelty

nobledest adj. ennobled

Noe Noah

nombre noun number

nones noun occasion

noon pro. none

noon of hem none of them, nobody

noot verb do not know, does not know

nortelrie noun education, nurture

nosethirles, nose-thirles noun nostrils

note noun job, task

not heed noun close-cropped head

ny prep. close

nyce adj. foolish, scrupulous

nycetee noun simplicity, foolishness

nyfles noun silly stories

nygard noun miser

nygardye noun miserliness

nyghtertale adj. night

niste, nyste verb (ne wiste) knew not, did not know

obeisant adj. obedient

obeisance, obeysaunce, obeisaunce noun obedience

observance, observaunce noun duty

offended verb, pst. prtcpl. injured

offensioun noun injury

office noun secular employment, function

ofte sithes adj. many times

Olifaunt noun Elephant

olyveres noun olive-trees

onis adv. once

ook noun oak

oon num. one

oost noun army

ooth noun oath

oother adv. other; conj. either

open-ers noun fruit of the medlar, a tree of the rose family bearing small brown apple-like fruits which are eaten when decayed

opie noun opium

ordinance, ordinaunce noun decree, order, arrangement, preparations

orgon noun organ

orpyment noun arsenic trisulfide

oure aller cok rooster of us all (awakened us all)

outen verb make public

outrely adv. plainly, utterly

outridere noun a monk who rode out to supervise the estates of a monastry

over al adv. wherever

overmacche verb defeat, outmatch

overryden verb run over

owher adv. anywhere

Oxenford Oxford

oynons noun, pl. onions

paas adv. & noun footpace (the slowest gait of a horse), slowly

pace verb proceed, go

page noun 1. (male) servant; 2. boy

paire plates noun suit of plate armor

palmeres noun professional pilgrims who had been to the Holy Land

pan noun skull

panade noun cutlass, a short sword with a slightly curved blade

papeer noun pepper

papejay noun parrot

paramour noun, sg. mistress, concubine

paramours noun, pl. mistresses

paramours adv. passionately

paraventure, par aventure, peraventure, per aventure adv. 1. perhaps; 2. by chance

par cas adv. by chance

parcel noun portion

pardee interj. indeed

pardoner noun a seller of indulgences

pardoun noun 1. papal indulgences; 2. forgiveness

parfit, parfyt, perfit adj. perfect, complete

parfitly adv. perfectly

parfourne, perfourne verb perform, accomplish

parfourned verb celebrated, completed, accomplished

parissh clerk noun someone who assists the parish priest to perform services in church

parisshens noun parishioners

parlement noun decision

parte noun share

Parvys noun the porch of St. Paul's Cathedral

pasture noun feeding place

patente noun letter of appointment from the king

patrimoyne noun inheritance

peert adj. impudent

pees noun peace

penaunce noun penance, suffering, distress

penyble adj. indefatigable, painstaking

percen verb pierce

per consequens adv. consequently

perdurable adj. eternal, everlasting

peril noun peril, serious and immediate danger

perilous adj. dangerous

perisse verb perish, destroy

perree, perrye noun precious stones, jewellery

pers adj. blue, bluish gray

perseveraunce noun perseverance, the persistance to a purpose, idea, or task in spite of obstacles

person, persoun noun parson, parish priest

perspectives noun optical lenses

peyne noun efforts

peynte verb disguise

peynted verb disguised

peynture noun painting

Phebus noun Phoebus Apollo, the sun

philosophie noun alchemy

philosophre noun astrologer

phisik adj. & noun medicine

pile verb rob, take unlawfully from

pilwe-beer noun pillow-case

pissemyre noun ant

pistel noun message

plat adj. blunt, flat

plit noun (bad) condition, plight

plentevous adj. plenteous

plesance, plesaunce noun pleasure, delight

pleyn commissioun full jurisdiction

pleyynge noun amusment

plighte noun pledge

poke noun bag, sack

polax noun battle-axe, pole-axe

polcat noun weasel

Poo the river Po

popet noun little doll

porcioun noun quantity

port noun bearing, manner

portreiture noun, sg. painting, picture

portreitures noun, pl. paintings, pictures

portreytour noun painter

post noun pillar, supporter

potage noun soup

potente noun walking stick

potestat noun potentate

pothecarie noun apothecary

pouche noun 1. purse; 2. pocket

Poules noun St. Paul's Cathedral

poure, povre adj. poor, impoverished

povereste adj. superlative poorest, most impoverished

poverte noun poverty

poynaunt adj. spicy, piquant, piercing

practyk noun practice

prees noun crowd

preesseth verb, 3rd prs. sg. push

preeve, preve verb prove

prelaat noun ecclesiastical dignitary

prentys noun apprenctice

prescience noun foreknowledge

preve noun proof

preyneth verb preens, make neat

prikasour noun horseman, hunter on horseback

priketh verb, 3rd prs. sg. pierces

prikyng verbal noun tracking

privee, pryvee adj. secretive, discreet

privee (pryvee) and apert in private and in public

prively, pryvely adv. secretly, discreetly, stealthily

privetee, pryvetee noun secret(s)

proces noun argument, case, discussion

procuratour noun attorney

prolixitee noun prolixity, lengthiness, tediousness

propre good noun own wealth/income

provost noun magistrate

prow noun benefit, profit

pryme noun around 09:00 A.M., the first hour

pulled adj. plucked

purchas noun acquisition

purchasour noun land-buyer

purfiled adj. lined with fur

purged adj cleansed (by baptism)

purtreye verb draw

purveiance, purveiaunce, purveyaunce noun providence, foresight

purveye verb prepare

pye noun magpie, a kind of bird (Pica pica)

pykepurs noun thief, pick-purs

pyketh verb cleans, adorns

pynche at verb find a flaw in

pynched adj. pleated

pynchen at verb find fault with

pyrie noun pear-tree

quake verb, prsnt tremble; quaketh 3rd prs. sg. trembles

qualm noun plague

quelle verb kill

Questio quid iuris (Latin) The question is, what law applies

queynt verb extinguished

queynte adj. pleasing, elegant; noun pleasing thing, sexual favours

queynte verb was extinguished, went out

quit adj. free

quod verb said

quook verb, pst. trembled

quike, quyk, quyke adj. alive, lively, vivid

quiknesse noun liveliness

quyked verb revived, rekindled

quyken verb revive

quykkest strete busiest street

quyk-silver noun mercury

quyt verb repaid

Radix malorum est Cupiditas (Latin) Greed is the root of all evil

rafte verb ravished, took away

ragerye noun wantonness

rakel adj. rash, hasty

rakelnesse noun rashness, haste

rampeth verb shakes her fist

raughte verb reached

reawme noun realm

rebekke noun woman

recchelees adj. careless, negligent, heedless of rules

receite noun formula, recipe

reconyssaunce noun recognizance, formal pledge

rede, reed, reede adj. red

regne noun kingdom, realm

reherce, rehercen verb repeat

rehersaille noun enumeration

rekene verb enumerate, calculate, consider, take account of, count

remes noun realms

reneye verb deny, renounce

reneyed verb renounced

renoun noun fame

rente noun income

rente verb, pst. tored

repair noun visitors, resort

repleccioun noun over-eating

reportour noun record keeper

repplicacioun verb reply

reprevable adj. reprehensible, blameworthy

repreeve, repreve noun reproof

requere verb ask

rescus noun rescue

resoun noun 1. remark, argument, opinion; 2. reason

resons noun, pl. remarks, opinions

resoun adj. reasonable, just; adv. reasonably

to reste verb (gone) to rest

rethor noun rhetorician

reve noun reeve, manager of an estate or farm

revelour noun rake, profligate, recklessly extravagant person

revelrye noun delight, pleasure

reverence noun dignity, respect

reyn noun rain

ribaudye noun coarse jesting, ribaldry

to riden out verb to go campaigning

riotoures noun, pl. profligates, debauchers

roche noun rock

rokkes noun, pl. rocks

roialliche ybore adj. royally carried

ronnen verb ran

roote noun foot

rote noun stringed instrument

roten adj. rotten

rouncy noun carthorse, nag

route noun company, group of people

routhe noun compassion, pity

routhelees, routheless adj. ruthless, without compassion

rowne verb whisper

rowned verb whispered

rownynge verb, pst. prtcpl. whispering

rowteth verb, 3rd prs. sg. snors

rowtyng verbal noun snoring

rubible noun a kind of fiddle

Ruce Russia

rudeliche noun crudely, ignorantly

rymeyed adj. rhymed, versified

ryver noun river

sad adj. serious

sadly adv. firmly

sadnesse noun seriousness, constancy

saleweth verb, 3rd prs. sg. greets

salue verb greet

saluyng verbal noun greeting

sans faille without doubt

sapience noun wisdom

sapiences noun mental abilities

saucefleem adj. pimpled

sauf adj. safe

saufly adv. safely, confidently

saugh verb, pst. sg. saw

sautrie, sawtrie noun psaltry (a harp-like instrument)

save prep. except (that)

savour noun 1. smell, odor; 2. flavor

savory adj. pleasant

savynge adj. except

sawnyng, sangwyn adj. 1. red, ruddy; 2. florid, bright, ruddy

scathe noun a pity

sclaundre noun disgrace

sclendre adj. lean, feeble

science noun knowledge

scole noun, sg. school

scole noun, pl. schools

scoleye verb study, attend the schools of the university

scoler noun student

scriptures noun books, writings

seche verb seek, search

secree noun secret information; adjective private, discreet

see noun sea

seege noun siege, a military operation

seeke, sike adj. sick

seel noun seal

seelde adj. seldom

See of Grece the eastern Mediterranean

seet verb sat

Seint Julian patron saint of hospitality

Seinte Loy St. Eligius

Seinte Poules St. Paul's Cathedral (in London)

seke verb 1. visit; 2. examine, look for

sely adj. innocent, hapless, ignorant, foolish, insignificant

semblable adj. similar

semycope noun short cloak

sentence noun 1. meaning, saying; 2. decision, command

sergeant of the lawe noun a lawyer who belonged to the highest order in his profession (from this group of legal officers the judges of the King's courts were chosen)

serpent noun snake

servitour noun servant

servysable adj. willing to serve, attentive

serye noun argument, chain of thoughts

seson, sesoun noun season

seten verb sat

sette his howve make a fool of him

seurete, seuretee noun pledge, promise

sewed verb pursued

seye verb seen

seynd adj. broiled, smoked

sey sooth tell the truth

shadwe noun shadow

shamefast adj. modest

shamefastnesse noun modesty

shapen verb destined

sharpeth verb, 3rd prs. sg. sharpens

she-ape noun female monkey

sheene, shene adj. bright, beautiful

shende verb destroy

sheere, shere noun scissors, pair of shears

sheres noun scissors

shette verb, pst locked

shifte verb provide

shiten adj. dirty, defiled

shirreve noun sheriff

sho noun shoe

shoon verb shone

shoop verb prepared, intended

shour noun, sg. rain

shoures noun, pl. rain showers, hardships

shoures soote sweet showers, rain

shrewe verb curse, beshrew; noun curse, cursed person

shrewed adj. cursed

shrewednesse noun wickedness

shrift, shrifte noun confession

shryven verb confessed

sighte noun 1. foresight; 2. view

Significavit noun order for imprisonment (the first word of a writ in which the imprisonment of an excommunicated person is ordered)

sik, sike, seeke adj. sick

siker adv. certain

sikerly, sekirly adv. certainly, truly

sikernesse noun certainty, security

similitude noun complement, counterpart

sire noun father

sith adv. since

sitthe adv. afterwards

slake verb verb diminish

slakke adj. slow

sleep verb slept

sleighte noun trick, trickery

slider adj. slippery

slogardie, slogardye noun sluggishness, slothfulness, laziness

sle, slee verb kill, slay

sleen verb kill, slay

sleeth verb, 3rd prs. sg. kills, slays

sleer noun slayer

slewthe noun sloth, laziness

slouthe noun sloth, laziness

slow verb killed, slew

slyde verb slip away

slyghte noun trickery

slyk adj. sleek, shining

smal noun 1. little, slender; 2. high (of voice)

smale adj. small

smale tytheres noun those reluctant to pay full tithes

smart adj. brisk

smerte verb suffers

smoklees adj. naked (without a smock)

snybbed verb rebuked, reprimanded

snybben verb rebuke

sobre adj. serious, grave

sobrely adv. seriously, gravely

sodeynly adv. suddenly

softe adv. 1. gently; 2. quietly; adj. 1. gentle; 2. quiet

so greet repair many visitors

sojourne verb remain

sojourned verb remained

sokyngly adv. gradually, step by step

Sol noun the sun

solempne adj. dignified, important

solempnely adv. ceremoniously, solemnly

solempnitee, solempnytee noun ceremony

Soler Halle noun the King's Hall, a college at Cambridge

somdel, somdeel adv. somewhat, partly

somnour, somonour noun a server of summonses for an ecclesiastical court

sonde noun servant, messenger

sondry adj. various, different

sondry folk noun various sorts of people

sondry londes noun various countries

sondry tonges noun various languages

sondry wise, sondry wyse noun various ways

songe verb sung

sonken verb sunk

sonne noun sun

soong, song verb, pst. sg. sang

soor, soore adv. sorely, bitterly; adj. painful, sore; noun misery, pain

soote adj. sweet, sweet-smelling

sooth, soothe, soth, sothe noun truth

soothfastnesse noun truthfulness

soothly adv. truly

soothnesse noun truth, reality

soper noun dinner

sophyme noun sophism, plausible but faulty argument

sort noun destiny, fate, lot

sorwe noun sorrow

sorweth verb grieves

sothe (sooth) noun truth

sother comp. truer

sotilly adv. skilfully

soukynge verb sucking

soul adv. solitary

soun noun sound

soutere noun cobbler, a person that mends and repairs shoes

soutiltee noun trick

sovereyn adj. best, outstanding, most excellent

sovereyn pestilence noun ultimate wickedness

sovereyn prys noun outstanding reputation

Sowdan noun sultan

Sowdanesse noun sultaness

sowded verb united

sowe verb sown

sowne verb 1. imitate; 2. play, sound, resound

sowple adj. compliant

space noun 1. time; 2. opportunity

sparhauk, sperhauk noun sparrow hawk

sparre noun (wooden) beam

sparth noun battle-axe

spectacle noun eyeglass

speed verb hurry

spedde verb hurried

spille verb destroy, put to death

spitously adv. 1. angrily, spitefully; 2. loudly

sporned verb stumbled

spouse noun husband

spousaille noun wedding

spray noun branch

squaymous sqeamish, easily nauseated or disgusted

squier noun squire, a young knight in the service of another knight

stal verb stole

stalke noun piece of straw

stant verb stands

stape adj. advanced

starf verb, pst. died

steede noun war-horse

stele noun handle

stele, stelen verb steal

stent verb stopped

stente verb, pst. sg. ceased, stopped

stere noun rudder, guide, steering wheel

sterelees adv. rudderless, disorientated

sterve verb, prsnt. die

sterven verb die

stevene noun voice, speech

stif adj. strong, powerful

stille adv. silently, motionless

stirte verb rushed

stot noun horse

strangled with killed by

straunge strem foreign river

straunge strondes foreign shores

stree noun straw

streit adj. narrow, small

streite yteyd adj. tightly fastened

stremes noun, pl. currents

stryvyng verbal noun strife, quarrelling

sturdy adj. cruel, harsh, strong

sturdinesse noun cruelty, harshness

stuwe noun fishpond

stynk noun stench

styth noun anvil

subget noun subject

sublymed adj. purified

sublymyng verbal noun sublimating, purifying

substance, substaunce noun 1. majority, (essential) quality; 2. (fixed) income, possessions

subtiltee noun craftiness, trickery, subility

suffisaunt adj. suitable

suffrance noun patience, forbearance

suffren verb allow

superfluitee noun abundance

surcote noun outer coat

suretee noun security, certainty

surquidrye noun arrogance, pride

suspect noun suspicion

suster noun sister

swayn young gentleman

swalwe, swelwe verb swallow

swapte verb fell suddenly

swatte verb sweated

swerd noun sword

sweven noun dream

swich pro. such

swich poraille such poor people

swonken verb, pst. worked

swore verb promised

swymme verb float

swynes-heed noun pig's head

swynk noun verb work, toil

swynke, swynken verb, prsnt. work, toil

swynkere noun labourer, worker

swyve verb copulate with

swyved verb copulated with

symple adj. simple, modest

symple and coy adj. unaffected and quiet, modest

syn conj. & prep. since

syngynge verb singing

synne noun sin, misbehaviour

synnes sevene seven deadly sins (Avarice, Envy, Gluttony, Lust, Pride, Sloth, Wrath)

taas noun heap

table dormant noun table fixed in its place, as distinct from one taken down between meals

tables noun backgammon

tabour noun drum

tappestere noun barmaid

tapycer noun tapestry-maker, weaver of tapestries, rugs, etc.

Te Deum (Latin) To you O God

teene noun trouble, vexation

teeres, teeris noun tears

telle verb count

tempest noun storm

tercelet noun male falcon

testif adj. head-strong, testy

theef noun thief

therbiforn adv. previously

therto adv. moreover

thikke knarre noun stout fellow

thilke demonstr. adj. that (same)

tholed verb suffered

thombe noun thumb

thonder noun thunder

thonder-clappes noun, pl. thunderstrokes

thonder-dent, thonder-dynt noun thunderstroke

th'orisonte noun the horizon

thral noun slave, servant

thraldom noun slavery, servitude

thre num. three

threpe verb assert, affirm positively

thridde num. third

thrift noun prosperity, welfare

thrifty adj. suitable, servicable, proper

thriftily adv. carefully, properly

throng verb thrust

throop noun village

throte-bolle noun Adam's apple

throwe noun while

thurgh prep. 1. through; 2. because of

thurgh-girt adj. pierced through

thynges noun duties, rites, business

tikel adj. ticklish, unreliable, unstable

tithe noun a 10th part of one's income paid for the support of a church

tobreketh verb, 3rd prs. sg. shatters, breaks in pieces

tobreste verb shatter, break in pieces

tobrosten verb shattered, broken in pieces

tolis noun, pl. tools

to lyte too little

tombesteres noun, p. dancing girls

tonge noun language

tonne noun wine barrel

took his wit verb calculated

toon toes

torace verb, prsnt. sg. tear to pieces

torente verb, pst. sg. tore to pieces

tormentrie noun torture

tormented verb tortured

totere verb tear to pieces

toty adj. dizzy

toun noun town

tour noun, sg. tower

toures noun, pl. towers

toute noun rump, human buttocks

t'overbyde verb to outlive

towaille noun towel

trad verb copulated with

travaillynge verbal noun in labor

tregetoures noun illusionists, jugglers

trench noun path

trenchant adj. sharp

tresoor noun treasure

tretee noun negotiation

tretis, tretys noun treaty, negotiation

trewe adj. true; adv. truly

trewe noun truce, a temporary agreement to cease hostilities

trewely adv. truly

triacle noun medicine, remedy

trompe noun trumpet

trone noun throne

trouthe noun 1. fidelity, loyalty; 2. pledge, promise

trowe verb think, suppose

trowed verb believed, thought

trussed verb packed

tuwel noun anus

tweye num. two

twight adj. & verb pulled

twiste verb tortured

twynne, twynnen verb, prsnt. depart, separate

twynned verb, pst. separated

unbrent adj. unburnt

undertake verb affirm, declare

undigne adj. unsuitable, unworthy

unheele noun misery

unkonnynge noun lack of skill, ignorance; adj. unskillful, ignorant

unkouth adj. exotic, rare, unfamiliar

unkyndely adv. unnaturally

unlyklinesse noun unsuitability

unnethe, unnethes adv hardly, with difficulty

unreste noun distress

unsely adj. unhappy

unshette verb unlocked

unthank noun bad luck, curses

unthriftily adv. poorly

untrewe adj. 1. inaccurately; 2. unfaithful

unwar adj unaware, unexpected

unweelde adj. feeble

unwemmed adj. unblemished, undefiled

unwist adj. uninformed, unknown

unwityngly adv. unknowingly

unyolden verbal noun unyielding

upon lond adj. in the countryside

urynales noun glass flasks

usaunt adj. accustomed

vapour noun emanation, influence

vassellage noun prowess

vavasour noun feudal landholder, landowner

veel noun veal

veluettes noun velvet vlothes

venerie verbal noun hunting

venial, venyal adj. pardonable, capable of being excused or forgiven

venym noun poison

vernage noun a white Italian wine (vernaccia)

vernycle noun miniature reproduction of St. Veronica's sacred cloth, bearing the imprint of Jesus' features

verraily adv. truly

verray adj. true

verre noun glass

veyne noun vein (of the plant)

veyn adj. foolish, wrong, idle

veyn ymaginacioun noun wrong conception, idle fancy

viage noun journey

vigilies noun, pl. vigils, feasts/services held on the eve of a religious festival

viker noun vicar

vileynye noun 1. evil, rudeness, shame, dishonor; 2. injury

vileynsly adv. rudely, shamefully

vinolent adj. drunken

virytrate noun hag, ugly old woman

visage noun face

vitaille noun victuals, provisions, stock of food

voirdit noun verdict

volupeer noun nightcap

vouche-sauf, vouche sauf verb agree, grant

voided, voyded, yvoyded verb removed

voyden verb get rid of, remove

voys noun 1. opinion; 2. report

waast verb waist

wafereres noun, pl. sellers of wafer-cakes

walet noun pouch, knapsack

wanges noun teeth

wang-tooth noun molar

wanhope noun despair

wantowne adj. pleasure-loving, jovial

wantownesse noun affectation

war adj 1. aware; 2. prudent

warde noun custody

warde-cors noun bodyguard

wardeyn noun 1. master of the college; 2. guard, guardian

ware noun merchandise, goods

warente verb protect

warisshe verb recover

warisshynge noun cure, healing

warye noun curse

wastel-breed noun expensive fine white bread

watres corosif noun acids

wawes noun, pl. waves

wayk, wayke adj. weak

waymentinge, waymentynge noun lamentation

webbe noun weaver

wedde verb, prsnt. marry; pst. (y)wedded married

weddede verb married

weddynge noun wedding

weel, wel adv. well

weep verb wept

weex verb became

weighte, wighte noun weight

wele noun happiness, prosperity

welle noun source, spring

wem noun harm

wemmelees adj. spotless, without blemish

wenche noun 1. girl; 2. maid, female servant

wente noun path

wepene noun, pl. weapons

werche noun work

were adj. defend, protect

wered verb wore

werre noun war

werreye verb, prsnt. wage war on

werreyed verb, pst. waged war on

werte noun wart, a small benign growth on the skin, usually hard and rounded, caused by a virus-induced abnormal growth of skin cells and thickening of the epidermis

wessh verb washed

wexe verb, prsnt. become, grow, increase, breed

wexeth verb, prsnt. becomes, grows, increases, breeds

weyve verb turn aside, neglect

wezele noun weasel, a small brown carnivorous mammal

whelkes noun pimples, pustules

whelp noun dog, pup

whennes adv. whence, why

whetston noun whetstone

whileer adv. just now

whilom adv. once, formerly

whippeltree noun cornel-tree

wight, wyght noun person, creature, being

wiste verb, pst. sg. knew; wist pst. prtcpl. known

wit noun intelligence, mind, judgement

witen verb know

withalle adv. indeed, moreover

with o voys adv. unanimously

withholde verb forced to remain

withseye verb renounce, deny

wityng noun knowledge

wlatsom adj. disgusting, loathsome

wo noun woe, regret, sorrow, pain

wodedowve noun wood pigeon

wolde verb, pst.sg. intended to, desired; wolden verb, pst.pl. intended to, desired

wone noun practice, custom

wone verb dwell

woned verb, pst. dwelt

wonyng noun dwelling

wont accustomed

wood adj. crazy, mad, insane

woodnesse noun madness

woostow do you know

woost verb, 2nd pers. prsnt. sg. know

woot verb, 1st & 3rd pers. prsnt. sg. know, knows

worthy adj. respectable, eminent

worthynesse noun respectability, dignity, eminence

worshipe noun honour, good reputation

woxen verb grown, become

wrestling verbal noun wrestling

wraw adj. grumpy, ill-tempered, peevish

wreche noun vengeance

wrecchednesse noun misery, wretchedness

wrek verb avenge

wreke, wreken verb 1. avenge, avenged; 2. revenge oneself

wreye verb betray

wrooth, wroth(e) adj. angry

wrye verb cover

wydwe noun widow

wyf noun 1. wife; 2. woman

wyke noun week

wyket noun wicket gate

wympul noun wimple, a head dress that covers all but the face

wynke verb close both eyes

wynnyng noun profit

wyte verb blame

yaf verb, pst. gave

yave verb, pst. would give

ybete verb, pst. prtcpl. embroidered

ycleped (cleped) verb, pst. sg. called

ycorve, ycorven, ykorven verb slit, cut

ydelly adj. in vain, in idleness

ydolastre noun idolater

ye noun eye

yeer noun years

yeerd, yerd noun enclosed garden

yeld verb give back

yelde verb reward, repay

yelden verb 1. surrender; 2. pay

yeman noun yeoman, freeborn servant

yen noun, pl. eyes

yeve, yif verb, prsnt. give

yeve, yeven verb give, given

yevest verb, 2nd prs. sg. give

yeveth verb, 3rd prs. sg. gives

yfeere, yfere adv. together

yfostred verb brought up, raised

yglewed verb glued

ygrave verb buried

yhid adj. & verb hidden

yifte noun, sg. gift

yiftes noun, pl. gifts

yis adv. yes indeed

yiven verb, pst. prtcpl. given

ykembd (kembd) adj. & verb combed

ylyk adj. alike, equal, like

ynogh, ynough adj. & noun enough

ynorissed, ynorisshed adj. bred, raised, educated

yolden verb yielded

yolleden verb yelled

yowthe noun youth

ypayed verb paid

ypocryte noun hypocrite

ypreved verb proved

ypunysshed verb punished

yshryve verb confessed, penitent, shriven

ysene adj. visible

ysprad verb spread

yswonke verb toiled, worked

yvel adj. evil, wicked

yvele apayd, apayed adj. displeased

Zephirus noun the west wind that blows in Spring


















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